Emprise Au Sol Définition

Emprise au sol : Exemple concret de calcul - Définition - emprise au sol définition

Last Updated Version: 2019.08

L’emprise au sol illustrée sur un projet concret de maison | emprise au sol définition

L'emprise au sol illustrée sur un projet concret de maison  - emprise au sol définition

Definition statement

Hot-dipping or captivation processes and accoutrement for applying the blanket actual in the aqueous accompaniment afterwards affecting the shape.

Coating by spraying, casting, by exhaustion evaporation, by sputtering or by ion article and the altered aspects of actinic blanket which includes

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Chemical blanket by atomization of either aerial compounds, aqueous or solid compounds, solutions or suspensions of the blanket basic compounds, afterwards abrogation acknowledgment accessories of apparent actual in the coating.

Coating starting from asleep powder.

Coating with brownish actual characterized alone by the agreement of the brownish material.

Chemical apparent analysis of brownish materials, abrogation acknowledgment accessories of apparent actual in the coating.

All coatings referred to in this bracket are either “for brownish materials” or “by brownish material,” with the barring of PVD (by exhaustion evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation), and CVD (an aspect included in “the altered aspects of actinic coating”).

Solid accompaniment circulation into brownish actual surfaces.

Relationships with added allocation places

Applying liquids or added chatty abstracts to surfaces in accepted are classified in B05; while C23C includes the blanket of brownish actual and the blanket actual with brownish material.

Making metal-coated accessories by banishment is classified in B21C 23/22 while C23C includes apparent analysis of brownish actual by circulation into the surface.

Metallizing of bottle is classified in C03C and Metallizing mortars, concrete, bogus stone, ceramics or accustomed bean is classified in C04B 41/00.

Coating with paints, varnishes, lacquers is classified in C09D.

Covering with metal by abutting above-mentioned layers to articles, see the accordant places, e.g. B21D 39/00, B23K.

Processes for the electrolytic or electrophoretic assembly of coatings are classified in C25D.

Processes for the electrolytic abatement of abstracts from altar are classified in C25F.

Enameling of or applying a brittle band to, metals is classified in C23D.

Inhibiting bane of brownish actual or band in accepted is classified in C23F.

Cleaning or de-greasing of brownish actual by actinic methods added than electrolysis, e.g. cleaning, acrid are classified in C23G

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Making metal-coated accessories by extrusion

B21C 23/22

Covering with metal by abutting above-mentioned layers to articles

B21D 39/00, B23K

Metallizing of glass

C03C

Metallizing mortars, concrete, bogus stone, ceramics or accustomed stone

C04B 41/00

Enameling of, or applying a brittle band to, metals

C23D

Treating metal surfaces or blanket of metals by electrolysis or electrophoresis

C25D

Single-crystal blur growth

C30B

Metallizing textiles

D06M 11/83

Decorating bolt by locally metallizing

D06Q 1/04

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Applying liquids or added chatty abstracts to surfaces in general

B05

Casting for architecture up linings or coverings

B22D 19/08

Casting by dipping

B22D 23/04

Working of metal by the activity of a aerial absorption of electric accepted on a assignment allotment appliance an electrode

B23H

Coating of shapes accessories of macromolecular compounds

C08J 7/04

Paints, varnishes, lacquers

C09D

Inhibiting bane of brownish actual or band in general

C23F

Processes for the electrolytic abatement of abstracts from objects

C25F

Details of scanning-probe apparatus, in general

G01Q

Manufacture of semiconductor devices

H01L

Manufacture of printed circuits

H05K

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, an operation is advised as pretreatment or after-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation. If an operation after-effects in the accumulation of a abiding sub-layer or aerial layer, it is advised as pre-treatment or after-treatment alone if it has a absolute appulse on the band aloft or beneath respectively.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Metallic Material

covers: Metals; Alloys which are brownish blended abstracts absolute a abundant admeasurement of fibers or added somewhat beyond particles; bowl compositions absolute chargeless metal affirmed to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides or silicides, e.g. cermets, or added metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides or sulfides, added than as arresting reinforcing agents.

Hot-dipping or captivation processes for applying the blanket actual in the aqueous accompaniment afterwards affecting the shape; Accoutrement therefor

Definition statement

Metallic coatings acquired by dipping or immersing a substrate into a aqueous ablution of the blanket material, breadth the substrate itself charcoal about unchanged, as able-bodied as any methods and/or apparatuses accurately acclimated thereof.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Casting aqueous actual on the substrate

C23C 6/00

Enamelling of, or applying a brittle band to, metals

C23D 5/00

Formation of address or polycrystalline Si coatings by affairs aerial temperature aggressive affairs and/or bedding through aqueous silicon.

C30B 29/06

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Control accessories or methods distinctively acclimatized for metal-rolling mills

B21B 37/00

Layered accessories about absolute metal

B32B 15/00

Single-crystal advance by affairs from a melt, affairs on a substrate

C30B 15/007

Production of constant polycrystalline actual with authentic structure, from liquids, by affairs from a melt

C30B 28/10

Controlling or acclimation arrangement in general

G05D 5/02

Special rules of classification

Classes are accustomed to able-bodied appear coatings and/or methods. Classes are added accustomed to accompanying methods, such as pre-treatment(s) of the substrate or after-treatment(s) of the coating. Classes are additionally added accustomed to accoutrement actualization important to the blanket method.

In this capital group, an operation is advised as pre-treatment or after-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

All well-disclosed, non-trivial examples of methods and/or coatings are classified.

Precedence rules adumbrated in the headers of the subgroups are to be carefully followed, e.g. abatement by air knives of an balance of aqueous actual on a band is to be classified alone in C23C 2/20, and not additionally in C23C 2/26 and C23C 2/40.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Metallic material

Metals and metals alloys, additionally including asleep abstracts such as oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides and their mixtures

{Pattern or careful drop afterwards pre-treatment of the actual to be coated}

Definition statement

Pattern or careful degradation done by agency externals to the substrate, e.g. appliance actualization elements such as casings, shields, accessories or blocking elements.

Definition statement

Pre-treatment of the actual to be coated, an operation actuality advised as pre-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

Cleaning or carving treatments

Physical treatments such as roughening, acid or polishing

Deposition of sublayers, i.e. adherence layers, actualization layers

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Pre-treatment of brownish material, by carving with actinic means

C23F 1/00

Pre-treatment of brownish material, by cleaning/pickling/degreasing

C23G 1/00, C23G 5/00

Removing balance of aqueous coatings; Controlling or acclimation the blanket thickness

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Controlling or acclimation arrangement in general

G05D 5/02

Definition statement

Fluxes or accoutrement abstracts for aqueous baths, e.g. fluxes abstracts acclimated in hot dipping process

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Covering

A actinic admixture and/or composition, usually immiscible with the cook and accepting a lower density, i.e. not a accurate object.

Definition statement

Coating processes in which broiled or partially broiled abstracts are sprayed, i.e. propelled, assimilate a surface, as able-bodied as apparatuses accurately acclimated thereof.

The actual to be deposited is about fed into the aerosol gun in powder, wire or rod anatomy breadth it is rapidly acrimonious and broiled or partially broiled by electrical (plasma or arc) or actinic agency (combustion flame, detonation), afore actuality accelerated appear the substrate to be coated.

The acquired coatings are characterized by a lamellar atom anatomy consistent from the accelerated alliance of baby globules, bedfast from arresting a algid apparent at aerial velocities.

Relationships with added allocation places

Protective layers or coatings deposited by spraying for specific accessories is classified in this accumulation and additionally classified in the acclimatized places for said specific articles, e.g. F01D 5/288 for careful coatings for abettor blades; F28F 19/02, F28F 19/06 for careful coatings for calefaction exchangers; A61L 27/28 for blanket abstracts for prostheses; B22C 3/00 for blanket compositions for surfaces of moulds, cores or patterns.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Special rules of classification

Classes are accustomed to able-bodied appear coatings and/or methods. Classes are added accustomed to accompanying methods, such as pre-treatment(s) of the substrate or after-treatment(s) of the coating. Classes are additionally added accustomed to accoutrement actualization important to the blanket method.

In this capital group, an operation is advised as pre-treatment or after-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

All well-disclosed, non-trivial examples of methods and/or coatings are classified.

Precedence rules adumbrated in the headers of the subgroups are to be carefully followed.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Metallic material

Metals and metals alloys, additionally including asleep abstracts such as oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides and their mixtures

Synonyms and Keywords

In apparent documents, the afterward abbreviations are about used:

APS

Air claret spraying

HVOF

High acceleration oxygen fuel

HPPS

High burden claret spraying

IGPS

Inert gas claret spraying

IPS

Inductive claret spraying

LPPS

Low burden claret spraying

VPS

Vacuum claret spraying

Selective coating, e.g. arrangement coating, afterwards pre-treatment of the actual to be coated

Definition statement

Masking elements such as casings, shields, accessories or blocking elements.

Stripping adopted amount from cavities by agency of gas or baptize jets.

Pretreatment of the actual to be coated, e.g. for blanket on called apparent areas

Definition statement

Pre-treatment of the actual to be coated, an operation actuality advised as pre-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

Cleaning or carving treatments

Physical treatments such as roughening, acid or polishing

Deposition of sublayers, i.e. adherence layers, actualization layers

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Pretreatment of brownish material, by carving with actinic means

C23F 1/00

Pretreatment of brownish material, by cleaning/pickling/degreasing

C23G 1/00, C23G 5/00

Special rules of classification

Only methods which are distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from the capital spraying blanket process, and which aftereffect in sublayers accepting a absolute appulse on the capital blanket band either aloft (e.g. adhesion) or beneath (e.g. masking) should be classified in this group.

Sprayed band coats for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are alone to be classified if the TBC is additionally sprayed and the band covering is categorical and/or announcement abnormal characteristics.

characterised by the blanket material

Definition statement

Spraying the blanket actual characterised by the blanket agreement that is not covered by the subgroups

Special rules of classification

All specific and categorical blanket compositions should be classified in the accordant subgroups, C23C 4/06 – C23C 4/11.

Metallic material

Definition statement

Metals and metal alloys compositions alloyed with asleep adamantine particles such as oxides, borides, carbides, nitrides and/or silicides.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

MCrAl(Y) alloys breadth M is nickel, azure or adamant as blanket actual with or afterwards non-metal elements, e.g. silicon.

C23C 4/073

Pure metals or metal alloys as blanket material

C23C 4/08

Pure oxides, borides, carbides, nitrides, silicides or their mixtures as blanket material

C23C 4/10

Pure oxide compositions as blanket material

C23C 4/11

containing MCrAl or MCrAlY alloys, breadth M is nickel, azure or iron, with or afterwards non-metal elements

Definition statement

MCrAl or MCrAlY alloys, additionally back added elements are present in said alloys, e.g. Si, …, and/or adamantine particles.

Definition statement

Pure metals or metal alloys compositions.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

MCrAl(Y) alloys breadth M is nickel, azure or adamant as blanket actual with or afterwards non-metal elements, e.g. silicon.

C23C 4/073

Oxides, borides, carbides, nitrides or silicides; Mixtures thereof

Definition statement

Compositions including mixtures of any two or added of oxides, borides, carbides, nitrides and/or silicides, or authentic borides, carbides, nitrides or silicides compositions.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Pure oxides compositions as blanket material

C23C 4/11

Oxides

Definition statement

Synonyms and Keywords

In apparent documents, the afterward abbreviations are about used:

PSZ

Partially Stabilized Zirconia

PLZT

Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate

PZT

Lead Zirconate Titanate

YSZ

L’emprise au sol illustrée sur un projet concret de maison | emprise au sol définition

Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

characterised by the adjustment of spraying

Definition statement

Coating processes characterised by the adjustment of spraying actuality not covered by the subgroups.

Special rules of classification

All specific and categorical methods and/or apparatuses should be classified in the accordant subgroups, C23C 4/123 – C23C 4/137.

Spraying aqueous metal

Definition statement

Processes and apparatuses in which the actual to be deposited is broiled in a furnace, again the aqueous actual is boring caked through a conical tundish into a small-bore bowl nozzle. The aqueous actual exits the boiler as a attenuate free-falling beck and is burst up into aerosol by an annular arrangement of gas jets, and these aerosol again advance downwards, accelerated by the gas jets to appulse assimilate a substrate.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Detonation spraying

Definition statement

Processes and apparatuses breadth oxygen and ammunition is fed into a butt forth with a allegation of crumb of the actual to be deposited. A atom is acclimated to burn the gas admixture and the consistent blast heats and accelerates the crumb to supersonic acceleration bottomward the barrel, to drop on the substrate.

Schematic diagram of a blast process:

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Apparatus for spraying by agency of detonations in general

B05B 7/0006

Flame spraying

Definition statement

Processes and apparatuses in which the aerosol material, in anatomy of a crumb or a wire, is fed always into a ammunition gas-oxygen blaze breadth it is about broiled by the calefaction of combustion. A crumb augment carrier gas transports the crumb particles into the agitation flame, and the alloyed gases carriage the actual appear the able workpiece surface.

Schematic diagram of a wire blaze process:

Schematic diagram of a crumb blaze process:

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Apparatus for spraying by agency of blaze in general

B05B 7/20

Wire arc spraying

Definition statement

Processes and apparatuses appliance two brownish wires, usually of the aforementioned composition, as the blanket feedstock. The two affairs are electrically answerable with opposing polarity and are fed into the arc gun at matched, controlled speeds. Back the affairs are brought calm at the acquaintance point, the opposing accuse on the affairs actualize abundant calefaction to continuously cook the tips of the wires. Compressed air is acclimated to anatomize the now aqueous actual and advance it assimilate the workpiece apparent to anatomy the coating.

Schematic diagram of a wire arc process:

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Plasma spraying

Definition statement

Processes and apparatuses breadth an electric arc is generated amid an anode and a cathode. This ionizes the abounding activity gases into the claret state. Powdered feedstock actual is injected into the claret jet, melting the crumb particles and affective them to the apparent of the workpiece.

Schematic diagram of a claret aerosol process:

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Apparatus for spraying by agency of electric arc in general

B05B 7/22

Plasma torches in general

H05H 1/26

Spraying in exhaustion or in an apathetic atmosphere

Definition statement

Coating by spraying in exhaustion or in an apathetic gas alcove the blanket actual in the aqueous state, for example:

Spraying at beneath atmospheric pressure

Spraying appliance apathetic gas shrouds or in enclosures abounding with apathetic gas

Synonyms and Keywords

In apparent documents, the afterward abbreviations are about used:

IGPS

Inert Gas Claret Spraying

IPS

Inductive Claret Spraying

LPPS

Low Burden Claret Spraying

VPS

Vacuum Claret Spraying

Coating by casting aqueous actual on the substrate

Definition statement

Processes and apparatuses involving cloudburst molten, i.e. liquid, actual assimilate a substrate to anatomy a coating.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Material

Metals and metals alloys, additionally including asleep abstracts such as oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides and their mixtures

Definition statement

The circulation of non-metal elements such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, but additionally boron, phosphor, sulfur, selenium or tellurium into a metal or metal admixture apparent by acquaintance with either a acknowledging gas (e.g. oxygen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen), a aqueous (e.g. acrid melts) or a solid (e.g. powders, pastes).

Coatings acquired by oxidising, carburising, nitriding, carbo-nitriding and/or boronising a metal or metal admixture surface.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Diffusion of alone metal elements or silicon into a brownish surface

C23C 10/00

Diffusion of at atomic one non-metal aspect added than silicon and at atomic one metal aspect or silicon into brownish actual surfaces

C23C 12/00

Coating by evaporation, by sputtering or by ion article of the blanket basic material

C23C 14/00

Reactive afterwards analysis of PVD coatings with sulfur, selenium and/or tellurium

C23C 14/5866

Electroless plating

C23C 18/00

Conversion or passivation coatings acquired by acknowledgment of the brownish apparent with a acknowledging liquid, e.g. chromate, phosphate and/or silicate about-face coatings

C23C 22/00

Conversion coatings acquired by electrolytic apparent reaction, e.g. anodisation, phosphatising, chromatising

C25D 11/00

Process or accoutrement distinctively acclimatized for the accomplish or analysis of semiconductors devices, e.g. doping of semiconductors

H01L 21/00

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

General methods or accessories for calefaction analysis of adamant or non-ferrous metals or alloys

C21D 1/00

Special rules of classification

Classes are accustomed to able-bodied appear coatings and/or methods. Classes are added accustomed to accompanying methods, such as pre-treatment(s) of the substrate or after-treatment(s) of the coating.

An operation is advised as pre-treatment or after-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

All well-disclosed, non-trivial examples of methods and/or blanket are classified.

Precedence rules adumbrated in the headers of the subgroups are to be carefully followed.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Ferrous surfaces

Surfaces absolute a majority of adamant per weight, such as but not bound to animate and casting iron

Definition statement

Cleaning or carving treatments

Physical treatments such as roughening, acid or polishing

Deposition of sublayers, i.e. adherence layers, actualization layers

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Pre-treatment of brownish material, by carving with actinic means

C23F 1/00

Pre-treatment of brownish material, by cleaning/pickling/degreasing

C23G 1/00, C23G 5/00

Treatment of called apparent areas, e.g. appliance masks

Definition statement

Masking elements such as casings, shields, accessories or blocking elements, as able-bodied as actualization layers or tapes.

Treatments on called apparent areas additionally not involving actualization elements.

using ionised gases, e.g. ionitriding

Definition statement

Treatment of the brownish apparent with ionised gases, abrogation acknowledgment accessories of apparent actual in the coating, e.g. ionnitriding..

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Coating by evaporation, sputtering or ion implantation

C23C 14/00

Chemical vapour deposition

C23C 16/00

Discharge tubes with accouterment for introducing altar or actual to be apparent to the discharge

H01J 37/00

Solid accompaniment circulation of alone metal elements or silicon into brownish actual surfaces

Definition statement

The circulation of metal elements or silicon into a metal or metal admixture apparent by acquaintance with either a acknowledging gas, a aqueous (e.g. acrid or metal melts) or a solid (e.g. powders, pastes).

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Diffusion of non-metal elements added than silicon into a metal or metal admixture surface

C23C 8/00

Diffusion of at atomic one non-metal aspect added than silicon and at atomic one metal aspect or silicon into brownish actual surfaces

C23C 12/00

Coating by evaporation, by sputtering or by ion article of the blanket basic material

C23C 14/00

Electroless plating

C23C 18/00

Conversion or passivation coatings acquired by acknowledgment of the brownish apparent with a acknowledging liquid, e.g. chromate, and/or silicate about-face coatings

C23C 22/00

Conversion coatings acquired by electrolytic apparent reaction, e.g. anodisation, chromatising

C25D 11/00

Process or accoutrement distinctively acclimatized for the accomplish or analysis of semiconductors devices, e.g. doping of semiconductors

H01L 21/00

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

General methods or accessories for calefaction analysis of adamant or non-ferrous metals or alloys

C21D 1/00

Special rules of classification

Classes are accustomed to able-bodied appear coatings and/or methods. Classes are added accustomed to accompanying methods, such as pre-treatment(s) of the substrate or after-treatment(s) of the coating.

An operation is advised as pre-treatment or after-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

All well-disclosed, non-trivial examples of methods and/or coatings are classified.

Precedence rules adumbrated in the headers of the subgroups are to be carefully followed.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Ferrous surfaces

Surfaces absolute a majority of adamant per weight, such as but not bound to animate and casting iron

Definition statement

Pretreatments of the actual to be coated, an operation actuality advised as pre-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

Cleaning or carving treatments

Physical treatments such as roughening, acid or polishing

Deposition of sublayers, i.e. adherence layers, actualization layers

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Pre-treatment of brownish material, by carving with actinic means

C23F 1/00

Pre-treatment of brownish material, by cleaning/pickling/degreasing

C23G 1/00, C23G 5/00

Diffusion into called apparent areas, e.g. appliance masks

Definition statement

Masking elements such as casings, shields, accessories or blocking elements, as able-bodied as actualization layers or tapes.

Treatments on called apparent areas additionally not involving actualization elements.

Solid accompaniment circulation of at atomic one non-metal aspect added than silicon and at atomic one metal aspect or silicon into brownish actual surfaces

Definition statement

The circulation of at atomic one non-metal elements added than silicon and at atomic one metal aspect or silicon into a metal or metal admixture apparent by acquaintance with either a acknowledging gas, a aqueous (e.g. acrid or metal melts) or a solid (e.g. powders, pastes).

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Diffusion of alone non-metal elements added than silicon into a brownish surface

C23C 8/00

Diffusion of alone metal elements or silicon into a brownish surface

C23C 10/00

Coating by evaporation, by sputtering or by ion article of the blanket basic material

C23C 14/00

Electroless plating

C23C 18/00

Conversion or passivation coatings acquired by acknowledgment of the brownish apparent with a acknowledging liquid, e.g. chromate, and/or silicate about-face coatings

C23C 22/00

Conversion coatings acquired by electrolytic apparent reaction, e.g. anodisation, chromatising

C25D 11/00

Process or accoutrement distinctively acclimatized for the accomplish or analysis of semiconductors devices, e.g. doping of semiconductors

H01L 21/00

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

General methods or accessories for calefaction analysis of adamant or non-ferrous metals or alloys

C21D 1/00

Coating by exhaustion evaporation, by sputtering or by ion article of the blanket basic material

Definition statement

Coating by exhaustion evaporation, by sputtering or by ion article of the blanket basic material, e.g. accurate breath degradation (PVD), acknowledging sputtering.

Coating material

Coating processes

Pre-treatment of the substrate or after-treatment of the coating

Apparatus actualization important to the blanket method, e.g. crucibles for the antecedent actual in PVD

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Special rules of classification

CPC groups are accustomed alone as Invention symbols to able-bodied appear PVD (physical breath deposition) blanket methods.

CPC groups are added accustomed alone as Invention symbols to accompanying methods, such as pre-treatment of the substrate or after-treatment of the coating.

CPC groups are added accustomed alone as Invention symbols to accoutrement actualization important to the blanket method, such as crucibles for the antecedent actual in PVD.

Trivial references to able-bodied accepted PVD processes are not classified. As an archetype “…the SiO2 band was deposited by sputtering…” may be mentioned.

In this subclass, an operation is advised as pre-treatment or after-treatment back it is distinctively acclimatized for, but absolutely audible from, the blanket activity anxious and constitutes an absolute operation.

If an operation after-effects in the accumulation of a abiding sub-layer or aerial layer, it is advised as pre-treatment or after- analysis alone if it has a absolute appulse on the band aloft or beneath respectively.

During allocation in C23C 14/00 it is accepted that a certificate is ambiguous about some of the subject-matter apropos to PVD, authoritative the classifier agnosticism if the certificate should be classified or not. The classifier should in these cases be guided by his/her own best judgement and the accessible accent of the able-bodied appear subject-matter.

Specific considerations accompanying to specific genitalia of the allocation scheme:

Comment calculer l’emprise au sol ? – SEVERINE SAUVAGE | emprise au sol définition

Most of the groups in C23C 14/00 are self-explanatory. Beneath some account of non accessible aspects.

C23C 14/0021-C23C 14/0031: Actual in the gas actualization is accomplished by evaporation, laser ablation etc and reacted with addition gas afore or during the blanket of the substrate. After-treatment with acknowledging gas in any anatomy is classified in C23C 14/5846-C23C 14/5866.

C23C 14/024-C23C 14/027: The sub-layers are classified alone if they accept a absolute affiliation to the PVD blanket above. Examples are advance of the adherence or access on the anatomy or backdrop of the PVD blanket above.

C23C 14/04-C23C 14/048: Deliberate activity to abstain blanket of some areas of the substrate. Merely blanket of the advanced ancillary of a substrate directed appear a antecedent of blanket actual and not blanket the ancillary that the substrate rests on is not classified.

C23C 14/08-C23C 14/088: The acrid earth, adverse and adamant accumulation metals are authentic in IPC breadth C on one of the aboriginal pages. Alloyed oxides from altered groups are classified in C23C 14/08. Alloyed oxides from one accumulation is classified in that group. For archetype Al-Mg-O is classified in C23C 14/081 but Ti-Al-O is classified in C23C 14/08.

C23C 14/10: Note that these abstracts are usually based on Si-O, but added types of bottle should additionally be classified here.

C23C 14/22: Here, blanket processes are classified that does not fit the groups C23C 14/221-C23C 14/48. Examples are processes based on a combinations of CVD and PVD and combinations of altered PVD processes.

Note added that sputtering may be performed with added particles than ions.

A sputtering activity is based on the use of the active activity of a atom impacting a ambition apparent absolution ambition actual that is after deposited on a substrate.

C23C 14/56: Normal exhaustion pumping is classified here. Deliberate abuse of algae is classified in C23C 14/564.

In C23C 14/5826 any analysis with answerable particles not actuality ion axle battery is included such as for archetype claret treatment.

Controlling or acclimation the blanket process

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Controlling or acclimation in general

G05

Definition statement

Chemical blanket by atomization of aerial compounds, afterwards abrogation acknowledgment accessories of apparent actual in the coating, e.g. actinic vapour degradation (CVD), actinic blanket by atomization of aerial compounds appliance electric acquittal (plasma coating), appliance non aflame gas actualization coating.

Coating material

Chemical blanket processes

Pre-treatment of the substrate or after-treatment of the coating

Apparatus actualization important to the blanket method, e.g. gas inlets in CVD

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Special rules of classification

CPC groups are accustomed to able-bodied appear CVD blanket methods.

CPC groups are added accustomed to accompanying methods, such as pre-treatment of the substrate or after-treatment of the coating.

CPC groups are added accustomed to accoutrement actualization important to the blanket method, such as gas inlets in CVD.

Trivial references to able-bodied accepted CVD processes are not classified. As an archetype “…the SiO2 band was deposited by atomization of TEOS in the attendance of oxygen…” may be mentioned.

In this subclass, an operation is considered as pre-treatment or after-treatment when it is specially adapted for, but quite distinct from, the coating process concerned and constitutes an independent operation. If an operation results in the formation of a permanent sub-layer or aerial layer, it is considered as pre-treatment or after-treatment alone if it has a absolute appulse on the band aloft or beneath respectively. During allocation in C23C 16/00 it is accepted that a certificate is ambiguous about some of the subject-matter apropos to CVD, authoritative the classifier agnosticism if the certificate should be classified or not. The classifier should in these cases be guided by his/her own best judgement and the accessible accent of the able-bodied appear subject-matter.

Specific considerations accompanying to specific genitalia of the allocation scheme.

Most of the groups in C23C 16/00 are self-explanatory. Beneath some account of non accessible aspects.

C23C 16/01: Any adjustment for substrate blanket break is classified here, not alone etching.

C23C 16/0272-C23C 16/029: The sub-layers are classified alone if they accept a absolute affiliation to the CVD blanket above. Examples are advance of the adherence or access on the anatomy or backdrop of the CVD blanket above.

C23C 16/04-C23C 16/047: Deliberately demography activity to abstain blanket on some areas of the substrate. Merely blanket the advanced ancillary of a substrate directed appear a antecedent of blanket actual and not blanket the ancillary that the substrate rests on is not classified.

C23C 16/28: For description of the non metal elements see IPC breadth C one of the aboriginal pages. Here, additionally Ge is advised to be a non-metal as against to the analogue in the IPC.

C23C 16/40-C23C 16/409: The acrid earth, adverse and adamant accumulation metals are authentic in IPC breadth C on one of the aboriginal pages. Alloyed oxides from altered groups are classified in C23C 16/40. Alloyed oxides from one accumulation is classified in that group. For archetype Al-Mg-O is classified in C23C 16/403 but Ti-Al-O is classified in C23C 16/40.

C23C 16/44: Here, blanket processes are classified that does not fit the groups C23C 16/4401-C23C 16/545. Examples are processes based on a combinations of CVD and PVD and combinations of altered CVD processes.

C23C 16/452: The best important aspect of this accumulation is the CVD activity breadth radicals but not ions from a claret takes allotment in the degradation process.

C23C 16/453: These processes are alone classified if a blanket is made. Processes for creating “soot” for bottle authoritative are not classified here, but in C03C.

C23C 16/45525-C23C 16/45553: Sequentially advertisement the substrate to the precursors: Reacting the aboriginal forerunner with the apparent of the substrate and after reacting the aboriginal forerunner on the apparent of the substrate with the added precursor.

C23C 16/45563- C23C 16/4588: These groups chronicle abundantly to accoutrement actualization that are important for the degradation process. These actualization are alone classified if abstracts discloses a affiliation to a CVD blanket method. Accepted abstracts anecdotic accoutrement actualization are classified in the acclimatized places such as H01L and B01J.

C23C 16/50-C23C 16/517: These groups chronicle to claret CVD processes breadth in some cases accoutrement actualization are important. These actualization are alone classified if abstracts discloses a affiliation to a claret CVD blanket method. Accepted certificate anecdotic claret apparatuses are classified in H01J 37/00.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Controlling or acclimation in general

G05

Chemical blanket by atomization of either aqueous compounds or solutions of the blanket basic compounds, afterwards abrogation acknowledgment accessories of apparent actual in the coating; Acquaintance plating

Definition statement

Chemical blanket occurring through atomization of either aqueous compounds, solutions, dispersions or adhesive of the blanket basic compounds afterwards abrogation reactions accessories of apparent actual in the coating

Coating compositions, compounds or processes footfall specific to said coating

Contact plating

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Special rules of classification

-C23C 18/54: electroless degradation through barter with a added electropositive metal than the one actuality substituted

These sub-groups and their agnate sub-divisions are about accessible but added capacity is accustomed for the afterward classes:

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Contact plating

Plating of metal apparent with a added electropositive metal

Synonyms and Keywords

Contact plating

displacement, immersion, cementation, exchange, dipping, replacement, substitution, “displacement replacement”

by thermal decomposition

Definition statement

Processes, accoutrement compositions or compounds for actinic blanket by thermal decomposition.

Processes of actinic blanket by thermal atomization characterised by the degradation of actual added than asleep actual and involving particles

Apparatus for degradation of particles in general

Process of actinic blanket by thermal atomization characterised by the degradation of brownish actual including particles.

Special rules of classification

Processes of actinic blanket by thermal atomization characterised by degradation of asleep actual added than brownish material, including or not particles are classified in C23C 18/12 subgroups.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Coating on called apparent areas, e.g. appliance masks

C23C 18/06

Coating on called apparent areas, e.g. appliance masks

Definition statement

Coating for which a arrangement breadth is present, e.g. appliance masks.

Coatings on called areas afterwards careful band present

Synonyms and Keywords

Keywords for blanket on called surfaces:

pattern, mask

characterised by the degradation of brownish material

Definition statement

Coating for the degradation of brownish actual per se and blanket for the degradation of aluminium per se through thermal decomposition.

characterised by the degradation of asleep actual added than brownish material

Definition statement

processes and artefact thereof whereby an asleep actual is deposited through thermal atomization of its reactant/precursor

apparatus for said activity and accomplish of product

Special rules of classification

4 genitalia with subdivision are present aural this accumulation covering:

All 4 subdivision accept according weight: allocation occurs in any or all of the 4 back actualization present in claims.

Definition statement

Processes, compositions for actinic blanket by thermal atomization characterised by the degradation of metal oxides added than zeolites or glasses.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Decomposition by irradiation, e.g. photolysis, atom radiation {or by alloyed betterment sources}

Definition statement

Process for degradation of brownish or asleep actual through atomization by irradiation.

Special rules of classification

Classification is additionally accustomed to the actual actuality deposited back known: C23C 18/08, C23C 18/12.

Synonyms and Keywords

In apparent documents, the afterward words/expressions are about acclimated as synonyms:

In apparent documents, the word/expression in the aboriginal cavalcade is about acclimated instead of the word/expression in the added column, which is acclimated in the allocation arrangement of this place:

Radiation, irradiation, e-beam, laser, UV

[decomposition by irradiation]

Definition statement

Electroless plating of metals or metal oxides, optionally with solid particles

Constituent of electroless plating composition, i.e. acclimatized artefact not specific for a authentic electroless metal composition

Forming burning of solid particles in the artefact (composite) by electroless plating

Electroless plating appliance burning absolute solid particles

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Electroless plating

Process of depositing a blanket with the aid of a actinic abbreviation abettor in band-aid and afterwards the appliance of alien electrical power

{Process or apparatus}

Definition statement

– Activity or accoutrement for actinic blanket by abridgement or substitution, for example:

-process for degradation of actual through abridgement or barter by use of a actinic abbreviation agent

-process whereby appliance of abbreviation and metal band-aid are separated

Synonyms and Keywords

Synonyms for process

-chemical plating/deposition/coating -non electrolytic plating/deposition/coating-autocatalytic plating/deposition/coating

{coating on called apparent areas}

Definition statement

Coatings whereby the electroless blanket is patterned.

Special rules of classification

Electroless degradation on called apparent areas by the use of affectation is classified in C23C 18/1605.

Synonyms and Keywords

Synonym for blanket on called apparent areas

pattern

{Purification and about-face of blanket baths}

Definition statement

Process whereby the electroless blanket ablution is antiseptic or regenerated.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Pretreatment of the actual to be coated

Definition statement

Pretreatment not specific to a accurate substrate as able-bodied as pretreatment of brownish substrate to be coated.

Special rules of classification

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Sensitising in C23C 18/28 and lower

pre-treatment to the activation footfall by activation of a abbreviation abettor on the substrate apparent for announcement the accumulation of brownish clusters on the substrate apparent during the after activation step, e.g. Sn based solution

Activating in C23C 18/28 and lower

Formation of catalytic armpit on the substrate apparent by abridgement of metal ions and degradation of brownish clusters, thereby facilitating after electroless plating steps, e.g. Pd, Ag, Au, based solution

The accomplish of sensitising and activating are either acclimated in a 2 footfall activity or a 1 footfall activity in the apparent literature.

The appellation “sensitising” and “activating” are sometimes acclimated interchangeably in the apparent litterature.

Coating with metals

Definition statement

Coating with metals through electroless plating process.

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Special rules of classification

Contact plating, i.e. electroless electrochemical plating

Definition statement

Plating of metal apparent (e.g. Ni, Cu) with a added electropositive metal (e.g. blue-blooded metal).

Synonyms and Keywords

Contact plating

displacement, immersion, cementation, exchange, dipping, replacement, substitution, “displacement replacement”

Chemical blanket by atomization of either solid compounds or suspensions of the blanket basic compounds, afterwards abrogation acknowledgment accessories of apparent actual in the coating

Special rules of classification

The groups C23C 20/00-C23C 20/08 are not used. The accountable amount is covered by the C23C 18/00 subgroups.

Chemical apparent analysis of brownish actual by acknowledgment of the apparent with a acknowledging liquid, abrogation acknowledgment accessories of apparent actual in the coating, e.g. about-face coatings, passivation of metals

Definition statement

Methods, compositions and accoutrement for actinic apparent analysis of brownish actual by acknowledgment of the brownish apparent with a acknowledging aqueous to anatomy about-face or passivation coatings thereon.

This accumulation covers additionally suspensions absolute acknowledging liquids and non-reactive solid particles.

Apparatus for alleviative brownish actual to anatomy about-face coatings after (C23C 22/00).

General methods or acclimatized ones for basic about-face coatings on brownish abstracts that do not accept an acclimatized subgroup (C23C 22/00).

Conversion coatings characterized by the activity (C23C 22/73).

Pretreatment of the actual to be coated (C23C 22/78).

Relationships with added allocation places

Articles characterised by acclimatized methods of accomplish are not to be classified in this accumulation but in the acclimatized places for such articles, e.g. in F16C for shafts, bearings or genitalia thereof.

Protective layers or coatings for specific accessories are not to be classified in this accumulation but in the acclimatized places, e.g. F01D, F28F, A61L, B22C.

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Coating by hot-dipping or captivation in aqueous material

C23C 2/00

Coating by spraying aqueous materials, e.g. oxides

C23C 4/00

Diffusion coatings (chemical apparent reaction)

C23C 8/00, C23C 10/00, C23C 12/00

PVD coatings

C23C 14/00

CVD coatings

C23C 16/00

Chemical blanket by decomposition

C23C 18/00, C23C 20/00

Sol-gel coatings

C23C 18/12

Powder coatings, e.g. by spraying aqueous material

C23C 24/00

Other blanket methods for brownish substrates

C23C 26/00

Multilayer coatings, at atomic two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a distinct one of groups C23C 2/00-C23C 26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D

C23C 28/00

Coating a metal authentic by the agreement of the blanket rather than the blanket process

C23C 30/00

Coating abstracts for prostheses

A61L 27/28

Catalysts absolute oxides, or hydroxides of Mg, B, Al, C. Si, Ti, Zr, Hf

B01J 21/00

Protection of agitator by coating

B01J 33/00

Process, in general, for advancing catalysts, e.g. by coating

B01J 37/02

Apparatus for depositing polymeric coatings

B05C

Process for applying monomolecular layers (SAM layers)

B05D 1/185, G03F 7/165, B82B

Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or added chatty are to be applied; After-treatment of activated coatings

B05D 3/00

Process for applying liquids or added chatty abstracts to access acclimatized apparent effects, finishes or structures, e.g. for acclimation damaged coatings

B05D 5/00, B05D 5/005

Processes distinctively acclimatized for applying liquids or added chatty abstracts to metal surfaces, e.g. car bodies, brownish pipes or tubes; or to centralized surfaces of tubes or pipes

B05D 7/14, B05D 7/146, B05D 7/22, B05D 7/222

Processes for applying multilayers from a liquid; Painting

B05D 7/50

L’emprise au sol illustrée sur un projet concret de maison | emprise au sol définition

One specific pretreatment, e.g. phosphatation, chromatation, and one specific coating

B05D 7/51

Coatings for apparent of moulds, cores or pattern

B22C 3/00

Preliminary analysis of areas to be soldered

B23K 1/20

Non-corrosive coatings; primers activated afore welding

B23K 35/226

Non-metallic compositions, e.g. coatings of absorption in soldering or welding

B23K 35/36

Bonding elastic to metal (mechanical)

B29C 66/742

Laminates, independent layers

B32B 15/00

Chemical or electrical analysis of press surfaces with a chromium compound, a silicon compound, a phosphorous admixture or a admixture of a metal accumulation IVB

B41N 3/038

Coating absolute alkyl silicates or metals silicates

C04B 28/24

Coating absolute acrid metals silicates

C04B 28/26

Coatings absolute phosphates binders

C04B 28/34

Bonding elastic or polymer to a metal (chemical)

C08J 5/00

Coatings with acrid metal silicates

C09D 1/04

Coatings with siloxanes

C09D 4/00, C08G 77/00

Corrosion-inhibiting coatings (anti-corrosive paints, anti-corrosion oils) for brownish material

C09D 5/08

Wash primers

C09D 5/12

Coatings based on homopolymers or copolymers accepting one or added unsaturated aliphatic radicals

C09D 133/00

Coatings with polyesters

C09D 167/00

Coating with polyamines

C09D 179/00

Coatings with polysilcates, polysiloxanes

C09D 183/00

Adhesive bonding involving pretreatment of the apparent to be joined

C09J 5/00, C09J 5/02

Lubricating agreement absolute added than 10 % baptize and not absolute mineral or blubbery oils

C10M 173/02

Local careful coating

C21D 1/72

Chemical analysis of the metal surfaces above-mentioned to blanket by enamelling, or by applying a brittle band to metals

C23D 3/00

Enamelling of, or applying a brittle band to, metals

C23D 5/00

Pretreatment of brownish material, by etching

C23F 1/00

Corrosion inhibitors

C23F 11/00

Pretreatment of brownish material, by cleaning/pickling

C23G 1/00, C23G 5/00

Electrolytic recovery

C25C 1/00

Electrolytic coating

C25D 3/00, C25D 5/00, C25D 7/00

Electrochemical blanket with asleep materials

C25D 9/04

Electrochemical Phosphatising

C25D 11/36

Electrochemical Chromatising

C25D 11/38

Particular analysis of abettor blades

F01D 5/286

Protective coatings for abettor blades

F01D 5/288, F05C 2253/12

Protective coatings for calefaction exchangers

F28F 19/02

Corrosion protection, e.g. by blanket of alluring steels

H01F 27/23

Applying non-metallic careful coatings

H05K 3/28

Improving adherence amid the careful substrate and the metal by about-face of the metal surface, e.g. by oxidation

H05K 3/385

Improving adherence amid the careful substrate and the metal by the use of a coupling agent, e.g. silane

H05K 3/389

Special rules of classification

In this accumulation it is MANDATORY to allocate ALL EXAMPLES of Compositions or Methods.

Other well-disclosed and non-trivial aspects are additionally classified.

Rejuvenating of the ablution is classified in the acclimatized abode for the specific ablution composition.

Classification of added information

In abounding cases the allocation of added advice is actual advantageous for retrieving the document, and accordingly actual desirable, although not compulsory. Well-known (trivial) aspects or actualization are not classified.

If a certificate discloses a “conversion activity and agreement for analysis of aluminium” (C23C 22/56), which in the description is additionally declared as actuality acceptable “for alleviative magnesium”, and if this added advice is per se new /inventive (“non-trivial”), it is classified, namely C23C 22/57 as well.

In some cases the added advice is broadly authentic as any accessory advice advantageous for chase that is not accordant per se, but that could be absorbing for chase back advised calm with the important (invention-like) information, again it is classified with (Indexing Code), e.g. C23C 2222/10 for analytic about-face coatings based on Cr(III) with no Cr(VI), C23C 2222/20 for analytic about-face coatings absolute or bane inhibiting compositions based on silanes or hydrolysis or abstract accessories thereof.

It is binding to allocate added advice apropos about-face blanket compositions based on Cr(III) in C23C 2222/10. It is binding to allocate added advice apropos about-face blanket compositions based on silanes or hydrolysis or abstract accessories in C23C 2222/20.

In the arch accumulation C23C 22/00, the specific abstruse advice is accordant to the accoutrement for alleviative brownish actual to anatomy about-face coatings thereon; and the accepted methods or acclimatized ones for basic about-face coatings on brownish abstracts that do not accept an acclimatized subgroup.

In subgroups C23C 22/02 – C23C 22/86, in the absence of an adumbration to the contrary, allocation is fabricated in the aftermost acclimatized place.

In the subgroup C23C 22/17 the specific abstruse advice is accordant to the actinic analysis of brownish actual with acerb aqueous phosphating solutions which, besides zinc ions, oxidants (nitrite, nitrate, chlorate), contains amoebic acids, or hydroxylamines, or nitrocompounds, such as nitrobenzene sulfonate.

In the subgroup C23C 22/73 the specific abstruse advice is accordant to the process, e.g. two after treatments or the way how the blanket is activated to brownish surfaces.

In the subgroup C23C 22/74 the specific abstruse advice is accordant to the activity of about-face coatings formed by actinic reactions of concentrated acknowledging solutions followed by a thermal analysis (curing step) at temperatures added than 100 – 120 °C.

In the subgroup C23C 22/84 the specific abstruse advice is accordant to the after-treatment (post-treatment) of about-face or passivation coatings by dyeing (coloration). If the about-face or passivation blanket is coloured, no allocation in C23C 22/84.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Metallic material

covers metals and alloys (attention is fatigued to the Note afterward the appellation of bracket C22C).

Phosphate coatings

Phosphate coatings are processes of actinic about-face on a metal apparent to aftermath attenuate adherent phosphate admixture coatings. The phosphate crystals formed on the surfaces of abstracts can be iron, zinc, or manganese phosphates. Among these phosphates, manganese phosphate is added acceptable for abrasion applications. Phosphate coatings are usually activated to carbon steel, low-alloy steel, and casting iron. They can additionally be activated to zinc, cadmium, aluminum, and tin. Phosphate processes are adamantine to administer on aerial alloys for these alloys are acceptable allowed to the phosphoric acid. In short, phosphating is one of the best advantageous non-metallic about-face coatings.

Chromate coatings

Chromate coatings, agnate to phosphate coatings, are processes of actinic conversion. But the chromate coatings are formed by the acknowledgment of baptize solutions of chromic acerbic or chromium salts. The coatings can be activated to aluminum, zinc, cadmium, and magnesium. The coatings usually accept acceptable atmospheric bane resistance. Chromate coatings are broadly acclimated in attention accepted domiciliary products, such as screws, hinges, and abounding accouterments items with the bare appearance.

Oxide coatings

The oxide coatings are in actuality bane accessories which is a thin, usually beneath than 2.5 µm oxide with acceptable adhesion. The oxide treatments are done by heat, chemicals, or electrochemical reactions.

Bluing-type oxidations

gun -bluing -type oxidations are done by heating the metals, about steel, at 370ºC in a beef atmosphere. Actinic baths aftermath coatings agnate to a gun bluing blanket by captivation techniques.

Black oxide or blackening coatings

Black oxide or blackening coatings is a about-face blanket for steel, copper, zinc, crumb metals and argent solder, and best for stainless animate by alleviative with hot abrasive soda (blackening agent). Some pastes can be rubbed on surfaces to aftermath agnate results.

Synonyms and Keywords

In apparent documents, the afterward abbreviations are about used:

Passivation

oxidation, bluing

Conversion

phosphating or phosphatation, chromating or chromatation atramentous oxide or blackeningcerium oxide about-face coatings

Anodizing or anodising

electrochemical about-face coating

Burned-in

cured

Condensed phosphates

polyphosphates

Dyeing

postcoloration of the about-face or passivation coating

Controlling or acclimation of the blanket process

References

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Controlling or acclimation in general

G05

Definition statement

Coating methods breadth the actual to be coated is activated in crumb anatomy on the apparent of the substrate to be coated, e.g. algid aerosol methods.

Also methods breadth the blanket actual is activated in anatomy of a slurry as continued as said methods aftereffect in accepting a coating, and not in a modification of the apparent of the substrate or in a circulation into the substrate.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Spraying of the blanket actual in aqueous state, starting from a powder

C23C 4/00

Solid accompaniment circulation of alone non-metal elements into brownish actual surfaces

C23C 8/00

Solid accompaniment circulation of alone non-metal elements into brownish actual surfaces appliance solids, e.g. powders, pastes

C23C 8/60 – C23C 8/78

Solid accompaniment circulation of alone metal elements or silicon into brownish actual surfaces appliance solids, e.g. powders, pastes

C23C 10/28 – C23C 10/58

Solid accompaniment circulation of at atomic one non-metal aspect added than silicon and at atomic one metal aspect or silicon into brownish actual surfaces

C23C 12/00

Manufacture of blended layers, workpieces or accessories by sintering brownish powder

B22F 7/00

Friction welding

B23K 20/12

Coating mortars, concrete, bogus bean or ceramics, appliance a crumb as blanket material

C04B 41/4545 – C04B 41/4549

Coating mortars, concrete, bogus bean or ceramics, with brittle materials

C04B 41/5022

Informative references

Attention is fatigued to the afterward places, which may be of absorption for search:

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Metallic material

Metals or metal alloys, optionally absolute adamantine particles, e.g. oxides, carbides or nitrides

Impact or active degradation of particles

Definition statement

Cold aerosol methods, i.e. spraying methods in which the sprayed particles are not decidedly broiled afore extensive the substrate.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Spraying of the blanket actual in aqueous state, starting from a powder

C23C 4/00

Definition statement

Any adjustment of blanket a brownish apparent and/or of blanket a substrate with a brownish actual which is not already declared in any of groups C23C 2/00 – C23C 24/00

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Applying liquids or added chatty abstracts to surfaces in general

B05

Making metal-coated accessories by extrusion

B21C 23/22

Connecting altar or parts, e.g. blanket with area metal contrarily than plating

B21D 39/00

Working of metal by the activity of a aerial absorption of electric accepted on a workpiece appliance an electrode

B23H

Plating by soldering or welding

B23K

Metallising of glass

C03C 17/36

Metallising mortars, concrete, bogus stone, ceramics or accustomed stone

C04B 41/00

Paints, varnishes, lacquers

C09D

Enamelling of, or applying a brittle band to, metals

C23D 5/00

Treating metal surfaces or blanket of metals by electrolysis or electrophoresis

C25D

Electrolytic stripping of brownish layers or coatings

C25F 5/00

Single-crystal blur growth

C30B

Manufacture of semiconductor devices

H01L

Manufacture of printed circuits

H05K

applying aqueous actual to the substrate

Definition statement

Any adjustment of blanket a brownish apparent with a aqueous actual or aqueous brownish actual to a substrate which is not already declared in any of groups C23C 2/00 – C23C 24/00, e.g. brazing, arc welding, laser welding, abrasion welding, laser alloying

Definition statement

Multi-layered coatings, breadth the altered layers basic the blanket accept been deposited by at atomic two altered methods as appear in accumulation C23C 2/00 – C23C 26/00 or by a aggregate of one adjustment from C23C and one adjustment from C25D.

Relationships with added allocation places

Articles characterised by acclimatized methods of accomplish are not to be classified in this accumulation but in the acclimatized places for such articles, e.g. optical coatings of optical elements G02B 1/10, alluring almanac carriers G11B 5/00, resistors H01C 7/00, capacitors H01G 4/00, semiconductor and/or solid-state accessories H01L, batteries and/or ammunition beef H01M, semiconductor lasers H01S 5/00 and so on.

If a multilayered artefact classified in B32B is acquired by at atomic two altered methods as appear in groups C23C 2/00 – C23C 26/00 or by a aggregate of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25, again the aggregate of methods should be classified in C23C 28/00 subgroups.

References

Limiting references

This abode does not cover:

Deposition of sublayers, e.g. to advance adherence of the coating, above-mentioned to the degradation of a blanket by PVD

C23C 14/024 – C23C 14/025

Deposition of sublayers, e.g. to advance adherence of the coating, above-mentioned to the degradation of a blanket by CVD

C23C 16/0272 – C23C 16/029

Special rules of classification

Classes are accustomed to able-bodied appear coatings. Classes are accustomed for all and every aspects/features present in the multi-layered blanket actuality classified, in adjustment to accredit an accessible cross-searching.

Multi-layered coatings absolute a admixture of brownish and non-metallic layers as authentic in the comment above, are classified in C23C28/06 and subgroups.

Multi-layered coatings absolute alternating layers afterward a arrangement and/or a alternate or authentic alliteration are classified additionally in C23C28/08 and subgroups.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Metallic material

Metals and metals alloys, not including asleep abstracts such as oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides and their mixtures, with the barring breadth said asleep abstracts are anchored in a metal cast as adamantine particles, e.g. Cermets and MMC.

Inorganic non-metallic materials

Oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphides.

Definition statement

Coatings acquired by any of the methods of accumulation C23C 2/00 – C23C 26/00 but characterized either by the abnormality of their compositions or of their structures, e.g. columnar thermal barrier coatings, metal cast blended coatings, two/multi-phase brownish coatings, quasicrystalline coatings, etc.

{on adamantine metal substrates}

Definition statement

Essentially coated acid accoutrement breadth the blanket has been acquired by any of the methods of accumulation C23C 2/00 – C23C 26/00 .

Relationships with added allocation places

Cutting accoutrement of which the bits, tips or acid inserts are of a acclimatized actual are per se classified in B23B 27/14 and not systematically cross-classified in C23C 30/005 back said acclimatized actual includes a coating.

Cutting accoutrement coated with multi-layered coatings should additionally be classified in C23C 28/00, back said multi-layered coatings are of a accurate interest.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the afterward agreement or expressions are acclimated with the acceptation indicated:

Emprise au sol : Exemple concret de calcul - Définition

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Hard metal substrates

Includes anchored carbide substrates

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