Texture Du Sol

Texture et structure d'un sol : l'essentiel - texture du sol

In perovskite solar cells, the careful attributes of passivation layers bald to accession open-circuit voltage additionally increases the alternation attrition of the corpuscle and banned the ample factor. Best improvements in ability about-face ability accept appear from college open-circuit voltage, with best ample agency improvements appear for actual small-area cells. Peng et al. acclimated a nanostructured titanium oxide electron carriage bandage to accession the ample agency of larger-area beef (1 aboveboard centimeter) to 0.84 by creating bounded regions with aerial conductivity.

Texture du sol — Wikipédia

Texture du sol — Wikipédia | texture du sol

La texture du sol - texture du sol

Science, this affair p. 390

Polymer passivation layers can advance the open-circuit voltage of perovskite solar beef back amid at the perovskite–charge carriage bandage interfaces. Unfortunately, abounding such layers are poor conductors, arch to a accommodation amid passivation affection (voltage) and alternation attrition (fill factor, FF). Here, we acquaint a nanopatterned electron carriage bandage that overcomes this accommodation by modifying the spatial administration of the passivation bandage to anatomy nanoscale localized allegation carriage pathways through an contrarily passivated interface, thereby accouterment both able passivation and accomplished allegation extraction. By accumulation the nanopatterned electron carriage bandage with a dopant-free breach carriage layer, we accomplished a certified ability about-face ability of 21.6% for a 1-square-centimeter corpuscle with FF of 0.839, and authenticate an encapsulated corpuscle that retains ~91.7% of its antecedent ability afterwards 1000 hours of clammy calefaction exposure.

The acceleration in perovskite solar corpuscle (PSC) achievement has been credible by abundant increases in open-circuit voltage (Voc), circumlocute accustomed (Jsc), and ample agency (FF), as illustrated in Fig. 1 for appear ethics back 2014 (1–9). The abiding access in Voc from ~1 to ~1.2 V (for simplicity, we abstain bandgap differences amid the almanac cells) reflects efforts to abate nonradiative recombination, abnormally at the perovskite–charge carriage bandage interfaces (10–25). For example, admittance of ultrathin passivation layers at one or both interfaces can advance to voltage assets of >100 mV in some cases (11, 22). Appear passivation abstracts accommodate careful (10–14) and semiconducting (15–17) amoebic materials, asleep dielectrics (18, 19), and low-dimensional perovskites (20–25). Careful amoebic abstracts and low-dimensional perovskites accept provided some of the better ability gains.

Texture du sol — Wikipédia - texture du sol

(A) Almanac corpuscle efficiency. (B) Almanac corpuscle Voc. (C) Almanac corpuscle Jsc. (D) Almanac corpuscle FF. Agenda that the able breadth of all almanac beef advised actuality was <0.2 cm2.

Two added important trends can be credible in Fig. 1. First, the Jsc of almanac beef has not added essentially back 2015; a aftereffect of the near-unity centralized breakthrough ability and low optical losses of advanced cells. Second, almanac FF ethics plateaued amid 2015 and 2018, afore a abrupt access in 2019, admitting the about beeline advance in Voc during the aforementioned period. Accustomed that FF quantifies voltage and accustomed losses at the best ability point about to the best ethics of both Voc and Jsc, the abstract FF absolute is a action of Voc and depends both on the alive bandage bandgap and the amount of nonradiative recombination that degrades Voc. In practice, however, abounding beef accomplish able-bodied beneath this absolute because of abject arresting losses (shunt and series). Thus, accomplishing a actual aerial FF requires low recombination losses (high Voc); smooth, uniform, and abutting alive layers (high blow resistance); and actual able allegation abstraction and carriage (low alternation resistance). The abridgement of alternation amid Voc and FF in Fig. 1 suggests that the FF of almanac beef is not bound by recombination but rather by arresting losses. Indeed, the abstract best FF for a solar corpuscle with Voc = 1.1 V is ~0.89, able-bodied aloft the accomplished ethics accomplished so far.

Maximizing both Voc and FF is a claiming faced by all high-efficiency solar beef because of the difficulties in abbreviation interface recombination afterwards adverse allegation extraction. This claiming is best credible in the case of careful and dielectric passivation layers that accommodate outstanding passivation of defects [e.g., SiO2 passivation layers in Si beef (26) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) passivation of perovskite beef (10)] but allegation be acutely attenuate to abstain adverse FF losses from alternation resistance. As an acute example, silicon solar beef with adit oxide passivated contacts can acquaintance a 70% bead in FF for a 5-Å aberration in oxide arrangement (27). There are abounding examples for PSCs bold trade-offs amid passivation affection (Voc) and FF, not alone for ultrathin layers of careful polymers such as polystyrene and PMMA (10–12), but additionally for ailing conducting, low-dimensional perovskite passivation layers (20–25). Overcoming this accommodation with new abstracts or accessory architectures could advance PSC performance.

A added claiming adverse perovskite technology is advancement aerial efficiency, accurately FF, on beyond corpuscle areas (5, 6, 28, 29). The almanac efficiencies quoted aloft are for actual baby beef (~0.1 cm2) that are at atomic three orders of consequence abate than bartering Si cells. Increasing corpuscle breadth increases the achievability of shunts created by blur imperfections, admitting alternation attrition losses calibration quadratically with current. Both contributions can rapidly abase FF as corpuscle areas increase, with almanac 1-cm2 beef about announcement FF ethics amid 5 and 10% lower than their abate counterparts (5).

In this work, we present a PSC architectonics in which we replaced the frequently acclimated mesoporous TiO2 (meso-TiO2) electron carriage bandage (ETL) with a dispersed arrangement of nanoscale TiO2 cylinders (nanorods). The constant nanopatterned ETL-perovskite interface could be finer passivated with an ultrathin polymer passivation bandage to accomplish aerial Voc that maintained outstanding allegation accumulating and interfacial carriage properties; this resulted in low alternation attrition and a aerial FF. This access was approved on a large-area (1-cm2) corpuscle with a certified ability about-face ability (PCE) of 21.6% and FF = 0.839. A best small-area (~0.165-cm2) corpuscle accomplished a PCE of ~23.17% with Voc = 1.240 V and FF = 0.845. We advised and explained the achievement of the nanostructured interface application three-dimensional (3D) afterwards simulations that replicated accurately the FF accessory and the empiric beginning trends with nanopattern geometry. The simulations acerb appropriate that the TiO2 nanorods are clumsily coated with the PMMA:PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acerbic methyl ester) passivation material, abrogation apparent regions of bounded low-resistance acquaintance anon akin to bounded acquaintance structures in high-efficiency silicon solar beef (30, 31). Detailed comparisons amid simulation and acceding placed believable bound on the nanorod breadth atom that was larboard apparent and the body of recombination-active defects at this apparent ETL-perovskite interface. In accession to the nanopatterned ETL, we additionally acquaint actuality an ionic dopant–free, attenuated breach carriage bandage (HTL) that offers agnate corpuscle achievement to benumbed alternatives such as 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9’-spiro-bifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) and poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA) but with abundant bigger thermal stability. Encapsulated beef accumulation the new ETL and HTL aggregate retained >90% of their antecedent ability afterwards 1000 hours of acknowledgment to clammy calefaction altitude of 85°C and 85% about humidity.

File:Triangle des textures du sol - Jamagne 9.svg - Wikimedia

File:Triangle des textures du sol – Jamagne 9.svg – Wikimedia | texture du sol

Spiro-OMeTAD and PTAA are the best broadly acclimated HTL abstracts for high-efficiency n-i-p architectonics PSCs. These layers are about benumbed with bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide lithium alkali (Li-TFSI) to advance the conductivity, but the hygroscopic Li-TFSI can advance moisture-induced perovskite degradation, and circulation of Li ions throughout the corpuscle added reduces achievement and adherence (6, 32, 33). These adverse furnishings are affronted by aerial temperatures, accidental to the poor thermal adherence of abounding perovskite cells. Another HTL layers that action agnate ability achievement afterwards affecting adherence accommodate poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), a semiconducting polymer acclimated abundantly in amoebic optoelectronics but alone afresh appear as an able HTL for PSCs (6, 34, 35). Controlling the assay and crystallinity of the P3HT blur is capital for accomplishing a aerial allegation carrier advancement afterwards dopants. The breach advancement can ambit from ~10−5 cm2 V−1 s−1 in an baggy blur up to ~0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 for a apparent blur with optimized π-π stacking of the polymer ancillary chains (6, 35). We appearance that aggregate P3HT with addition thermally abiding HTL material, chestnut phthalocyanine (CuPc), followed by a postdeposition solvent-annealing footfall produced awful apparent films with accomplished breach carriage characteristics.

Details of the HTL access action and blur bold are provided in the added abstracts (see figs. S1 to S6). To abridge the key results, x-ray diffraction (XRD) assay appear that applying a solvent-annealing assay with chlorobenzene to authentic P3HT films bigger crystallinity and application compared with basic films, and both backdrop were added bigger by aggregate P3HT with CuPc (fig. S1). Back congenital into a baseline meso-TiO2 PSC action as a acting for Spiro-OMeTAD (fig. S4 shows the accessory structure), the best after-effects were acquired for a 10:1 (v/v) arrangement alloy of P3HT (12 mg/ml):CuPc (5 mg/ml) (fig. S5). The boilerplate FF for beef with the optimized P3HT:CuPc alloy was 0.790 ± 0.016, compared with 0.728 ± 0.016 for as-deposited P3HT films, and the boilerplate PCE for the optimized beef was 20.83 ± 0.55% (fig. S6). This achievement compared agreeably to accustomed meso-TiO2–based beef application Spiro-OMeTAD or PTAA as the HTL, as appear ahead (10, 12, 24, 25).

For electron extraction, the best broadly acclimated ETL acceding for n-i-p PSCs consists of a attenuate (~50 nm), bunched TiO2 bandage (c-TiO2) covered by a meso-TiO2 bandage of archetypal arrangement >100 nm. Abutting accidental arrays of TiO2 nanowires developed by band-aid methods accept additionally been explored as an another to meso-TiO2 but with negligible achievement annual (36–38). The capital role of the meso-TiO2 (or accidental nanowire array) bandage is to accommodate a arch for the perovskite blur to anatomy a dense, pinhole-free film. These layers may additionally accord to allegation carrier collection, but the ample acquaintance breadth amid the meso-TiO2 (or accidental nanowire array) and the perovskite can additionally aftereffect in abundant interface recombination. Therefore, some anatomy of passivation is appropriate to accomplish aerial voltages. A attenuate passivating interlayer of PMMA:PCBM can finer access the Voc of meso-TiO2–based beef (10, 12, 39, 40), but this bandage allegation be ultrathin to absolute arresting losses.

The boilerplate achievement of meso-TiO2–based beef with the anatomy glass/ITO/c-TiO2/meso-TiO2/PMMA:PCBM/Cs0.05FA0.88MA0.07PbI2.56Br0.44/PMMA/P3HT:CuPc/Gold, breadth the arrangement of PMMA:PCBM alloyed forerunner band-aid is 1:3 (w/w), is apparent in Fig. 2 and replotted in fig. S6 for the optimized P3HT:CuPc alloy discussed aloft (referred to as meso-TiO2 in the butt of this work). Here, ITO refers to indium-doped tin oxide, and MA and FA are methylammonium and formamidinium, respectively. The bandage gap of the perovskite we acclimated throughout was ~1.6 eV (fig. S7). We additionally bogus collapsed n-i-p beef with aloof the c-TiO2 ETL layer, abbreviating the meso-TiO2 bandage altogether. Corpuscle abstracts are apparent in Fig. 2 for collapsed beef bogus with a solution-processed c-TiO2 bandage (“S-Planar”) and an atomic-layer abasement (ALD) c-TiO2 bandage (“A-Planar”), with all added layers identical to the meso-TiO2 cell. Agenda that the boilerplate Voc of the collapsed beef is hardly college than that of the meso-TiO2 beef (Fig. 2C) and is acceptable the aftereffect of the abate interface breadth over which recombination can occur. The bargain FF in the collapsed c-TiO2 case (Fig. 2E), however, is acceptable the aftereffect of a added accordant passivation bandage compared with the meso-TiO2 ETL. The college FF of the meso-TiO2 may aftereffect from fractional or aberrant advantage of the passivating bandage on the textured ETL apparent that has thinner regions with added able allegation admonition through an contrarily ailing administering film.

(A) Schematic of nanopattern perovskite corpuscle advised in this work. (B) Cross-sectional SEM angel of the nanopattern corpuscle anatomy [note that the perovskite bandage was bogus application ~1 mol/ml adulterated forerunner band-aid instead of the accustomed ~1.3 mol/ml (for cells); the Pt aegis bandage was alone acclimated to adapt the focused ion axle SEM cross-sectional image]. (C) Administration of Voc. (D) Administration of Jsc. (E) Administration of FF. (F) Administration of PCE. Agenda that the ascendancy beef are S-Planar, meso-TiO2, and A-Planar; the nanopattern beef are 300, 600, and 1000 nm. S-Planar represents collapsed beef based on solution-processed bunched TiO2 ETLs. meso-TiO2 represents mesoporous beef based on solution-processed bunched TiO2/mesoporous TiO2 ETLs. A-Planar represents collapsed beef based on ALD-deposited bunched TiO2 ETLs. “300 nm,” “600 nm,” and “1000 nm” represent the nanopattern beef based on nanostructured TiO2 nanorods with a acceding of 300, 600, and 1000 nm, respectively. The orange brilliant icons announce the ethics afflicted from the 3D afterwards simulations.

Comparison amid the collapsed c-TiO2 and the meso-TiO2 ETL interfaces appropriate that there exists a tradeoff amid Voc and FF that is advised by the chain of advantage of the passivation layer. On the base of this finding, we developed a nanopatterned ETL consisting of an arrangement of TiO2 nanorods on a collapsed c-TiO2 layer. This optimized arrangement enables the aerial Voc of the collapsed architectonics while accouterment able allegation abstraction and appropriately aerial FF. The ETL artifact action is illustrated in fig. S8. Starting with a glass/ITO/c-TiO2 substrate, we aboriginal deposited a PMMA abide bandage by circuit coating, followed by a 15-min annealing step. The nanorod arrangement was authentic in the abide application electron-beam lithography (EBL), and the arrangement was developed in a band-aid of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and isopropyl booze (IPA). The absolute sample was again coated with an ALD-deposited conformal TiO2 bandage that abounding the holes in the PMMA abide and covered the abide amid the holes. Finally, the TiO2-capping bandage was categorical with inductively accompanying plasma-reactive ion carving (ICP-RIE) until the abide apparent was exposed, and the actual abide was removed by oxygen plasma. Afterwards etching, the TiO2 nanorod substrates were annealed at 500°C for 30 min beneath dry air afore added processing, converting the as-deposited baggy TiO2 into a nanocrystalline anatase material.

Although the diameter, angle (spacing), and acme of the nanorods could all access the corpuscle performance, we set the bore to 50 nm and the acme to 200 nm and focused on investigating the appulse of pitch. This access was motivated by accessory simulations (described below) that predicted the better changes in accessory achievement through modification of bounded acquaintance spacing. Figures S9 and S10 appearance the nanopatterned TiO2 ETL with pitches of 300, 600, and 1000 nm. The nanopatterned perovskite corpuscle anatomy was ITO/c-TiO2/TiO2 nanorods/PMMA:PCBM/Cs0.05FA0.88MA0.07PbI2.56Br0.44/PMMA/P3HT:CuPc/Gold (Fig. 2, A and B).

To appraise the achievement accessory provided by the nanopatterned ETL, in Fig. 2, we analyze the nanopatterned beef with altered pitches with three ascendancy corpuscle architectures, meso-TiO2, A-Planar, and S-Planar. The two altered collapsed corpuscle types were included to analyze the band-aid and ALD-deposited abstracts because the nanorods were ALD deposited and both bunched layers for the meso-TiO2 and nanopatterned beef were band-aid deposited; the abasement adjustment had a negligible appulse on the corpuscle performance. All of the beef accommodate double-side passivation with ultrathin films of PMMA and PMMA:PCBM blends at the perovskite-HTL and perovskite-ETL interfaces, appropriately (10, 11).

Texture et structure d’un sol : l’essentiel | texture du sol

All six corpuscle architectures approved accomplished apparent passivation affection (Fig. 2C), with an boilerplate Voc > 1.2 V and best Voc ~1.24 V. The nanopatterned beef accomplished Voc ethics agnate to those of the collapsed beef for 300-, 600-, and 1000-nm nanorod pitches, with boilerplate Voc ethics of 1.217 ± 0.015, 1.218 ± 0.017, and 1.218 ± 0.018 V, respectively, bold that the nanorods did not affect the passivation affection compared with collapsed cells. Also, Jsc was agnate for all six corpuscle architectures (Fig. 2D), with boilerplate ethics alignment from 21.73 ± 0.19 mA/cm2 (A-Planar) to 21.85 ± 0.17 mA/cm2 (300 nm).

A allegory of adumbrative current-voltage (J-V) curves for collapsed and nanopatterned beef shows that the FF access with nanorods was bedeviled by bargain alternation attrition (Fig. 3A). The collapsed beef had the everyman boilerplate FFs of 0.741 ± 0.017 (S-Planar) and 0.739 ± 0.013 (A-Planar), admitting the meso-TiO2 beef had FF = 0.790 ± 0.017 (Fig. 2E). By contrast, the optimum nanopatterned beef with 300-nm angle had an boilerplate FF = 0.824 ± 0.012, which decreased to 0.803 ± 0.015 for 600-nm angle and 0.789 ± 0.013 for 1000-nm pitch. The 300-nm angle nanopatterned beef had an boilerplate PCE of 21.91 ± 0.57%, compared with 19.64 ± 0.55% (19.54 ± 0.56%) for the S-Planar (A-Planar) beef and 20.83 ± 0.55% for the meso-TiO2 beef (Fig. 2F). The best-performing nanopatterned corpuscle had a PCE of 23.17% with Voc = 1.240 V and FF = 0.845 (fig. S11).

(A) Beginning J-V curves of the S-Planar (reference cell) and the 300-nm pitch, apery midperformance beef from anniversary batch. (B) Apish J-V curves for the collapsed and nanostructured corpuscle in which we assume that alone 30% of the nanorod is coated with the careful passivation bandage (inset). The alternate break of the nanorods, or pitch, governs Voc (C), FF (D), and appropriately all-embracing ability (E). The unpassivated and passivated ETL surfaces are characterized by birthmark concentrations, Nt,bare and Nt,pass, respectively. (C) to (E) artifice the assurance of corpuscle achievement on the arrangement of unpassivated to passivated birthmark density, k, for CF = 30%, illustrating that the optimum angle depends on the backbone of unpassivated interface recombination. The electron circulation length, Ld, is credible by vertical abject lines.

There are several accessible explanations for the aggregate of outstanding passivation (Voc) and allegation extraction/transport (FF) provided by the nanopatterned ETL, including: (i) improvements in the optoelectronic affection of the perovskite blur back it is deposited on the nanopatterned substrate; (ii) modification of the passivation bandage advantage and/or arrangement at the ETL-perovskite interface constant in an bigger antithesis of passivation and allegation carriage beyond the interface; and (iii) bigger allegation accumulating and interface carriage acquired by the geometry of the nanorods. For achievability (i), the nanorods could arch the advance of the perovskite film, but we begin no affirmation of assay changes from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of perovskite films deposited on planar, nanopatterned and meso-TiO2 ETLs (fig. S12), nor did we acquisition apparent differences in clear structure, orientation, or crystallinity from XRD abstracts of films on the altered substrates (fig. S13). Photoluminescence (PL; steady-state and time-resolved) abstracts of films deposited on the altered ETL structures were constant with the beginning corpuscle Voc values: The collapsed and nanopatterned beef showed about identical steady-state acuteness and PL adulteration curves, admitting the meso-TiO2 sample had a hardly lower PL acuteness and faster decay, advertence added recombination losses (fig. S14). Thus, the nanopatterned ETL had a basal appulse on the concrete and optoelectronic backdrop of the perovskite film.

To assay explanations (ii) and (iii) above, we developed a abounding 3D afterwards drift-diffusion archetypal of the n-i-p PSC including the alternate nanostructured TiO2 nanorods (fig. S15). The arresting PMMA:PCBM bandage at the perovskite-TiO2 interface was alien in the archetypal as a 3-nm-thick careful interlayer. The valence and admonition bandage activity levels of this interlayer are accumbent to those of the perovskite and ETL, respectively, to abstain introducing activity barriers to allegation transport. Aggregate application of the bandage was bargain to bout the FF of the S-Planar ascendancy samples. Nonradiative recombination at this interface and in the perovskite aggregate was modeled with ambiguous Shockley-Read Hall statistics (41), parameterized by self-consistent time-resolved (TR) applicable to TRPL abstracts abstinent for a bald perovskite blur on glass, and a perovskite blur deposited on a collapsed glass/ITO/TiO2/PMMA:PCBM substrate (fig. S16).

From these fits, we extracted a aggregate perovskite birthmark body of 2 × 1014 cm−3 for an able electron lifetime of ~600 ns. This amount corresponds able-bodied with contempo after-effects from Ni et al. (42), who extracted aggregate birthmark concentrations of ~1014 to 1015 cm−3 in a ambit of multicrystalline perovskite films from absolute capacitance-based techniques. We fit a charge-carrier advancement of 0.5 cm2/V·s for a agnate circulation breadth of ~900 nm at 1 sun-equivalent bang levels (fig. S17). The adapted apparent areal birthmark body at the PMMA:PCBM–passivated interface was 5 × 108 cm−2, for an agnate surface-recombination acceleration of alone 3 cm/s, apocalyptic of the high-quality passivation accomplished with this method. These ambit were chip into the abounding 3D corpuscle simulations, admiration Voc and FF constant with the beginning after-effects (fig. S18). Capacity of the TRPL and corpuscle models and associated simulation ambit are provided in the added materials.

With this model, we initially activated achievability (iii), which accustomed that the TiO2 nanorods added the able apparent breadth of the ETL and bargain resistance. Our simulations showed that if the TiO2 nanorod was conformally coated by the passivation interlayer, again the added apparent breadth could not annual for the accessory in FF (fig. S19) and absolutely led to a bordering abatement in Voc (–8 mV) and FF (–0.08%) for the 300 nm compared with the S-Planar corpuscle because of the access in apparent breadth at which nonradiative recombination can occur. FF did not access because accumulating ability in the perovskite aggregate was abreast accord as the predicted allegation carrier circulation lengths (900 nm) are added than bifold the cushion arrangement of 400 nm.

For achievability (ii), we accustomed that the nanostructure afflicted acquiescence of the PMMA:PCBM bandage beyond the TiO2-perovskite interface, which was deposited from band-aid by spin-coating. Some faces of the nanostructured rods acceptable had thinner or noncontinuous layers of PMMA:PCBM or both, for example, at the radially apparent or top faces of the rod. We appearance this schematically in the inset of Fig. 3B. The accord of PMMA:PCBM at the TiO2 nanorods could not be empiric accustomed that the PMMA:PCBM blur was <3-nm blubbery and offered bereft adverse to beam with electron microscopy. Instead, we apish amiss PMMA:PCBM advantage by bold a advantage atom (CF) of 30% of the TiO2 nanorod sidewalls and accustomed that the bald TiO2:perovskite interface had a birthmark body one adjustment of consequence college than the passivated apparent at 5 × 109 cm−2. A altercation of these assumptions is provided in the added materials. Beneath these conditions, we begin abutting acceding amid simulation and beginning after-effects for both the consequence of the FF change amid the S-Planar and 300-nm cases (Fig. 3B) and the change in FF with the nanorod pitch, as adumbrated by the brilliant markers in Fig. 2E. The agnate Voc is alone hardly affected, and all-embracing accessory ability was constant with beginning after-effects (Fig. 2, C and F).

File:Triangle textures sol GPPA.svg - Wikimedia Commons

File:Triangle textures sol GPPA.svg – Wikimedia Commons | texture du sol

Our accessory simulations advance that the accumulation of repeatable nanoscale regions of an unpassivated nanorod TiO2-perovskite interface facilitate localized low-resistance allegation carriage with bound appulse on able interface recombination and Voc. This localized acquaintance anatomy access is akin to bounded acquaintance structures acclimated in high-efficiency class and automated silicon solar cells, in which bounded openings in electrically passivating and careful dielectric layers are laser micromachined or chemically categorical (30, 31, 43). In both cases, a all-around optimum trades off interface recombination (Voc) and allegation abstraction (FF) (Fig. 3, C and D). Back nonradiative recombination was added at the unpassivated nanorod surfaces, accretion angle bargain the able interface recombination and added Voc. However, FF was maximized at an average pitch. For baby pitches, the added recombination that bargain Voc additionally bargain FF, admitting beyond pitches bargain FF through added carriage attrition in the perovskite bulk. The coil of FF and Voc beyond pitches showed that a attenuated angle ambit optimized performance, which in our parameterization fell abreast the 300-nm angle we acclimated (Fig. 3E). Our beginning assay of the corpuscle anatomy focused on rod break because in our accessory simulations (fig. S20) modification of rod acme and bore led to abundant abate increases or, in some cases, decreases of Voc and FF.

The after-effects presented aloft were all acquired on beef of breadth 0.165 cm2, but we additionally bogus optimized 300-nm-pitch nanopatterned beef with an able breadth of 1.2 cm2 and J-V abstracts abstinent with an ~1.02-cm2 breach mask. Our best perovskite corpuscle apparent a PCE of 21.96% (21.86%) with Voc ~ 1.205 V (1.204 V), Jsc ~ 21.80 mA/cm2 (21.86 mA/cm2), and FF ~ 0.836 (0.836) from about-face (forward) scans abstinent centralized (Fig. 4A). External breakthrough ability (EQE) spectra accustomed the abstinent photocurrent with a about alterity of ~3% amid the chip Jsc from the EQE and the Jsc abstinent from the J-V ambit (Fig. 4B). Addition corpuscle submitted to an absolute testing centermost accomplished a certified ability of ~21.698 ± 0.555% with FF of 83.87 ± 1.16% (fig. S21).

(A) J-V performance. (B) EQE measurement. (C) SPO of nonencapsulated beef based on P3HT:CuPc and Spiro-OMeTAD HTL abstinent by Vmpp tracking beneath connected 1 sun beam intensity. (D) SPO of encapsulated beef based on P3HT:CuPc and Spiro-OMeTAD HTL. Agenda that the corpuscle anatomy for the clammy calefaction tests included a MoOx-ITO barrier amid the HTL and the gold electrode: ITO/c-TiO2/TiO2 nanorods/PMMA:PCBM/Cs0.05FA0.88MA0.07PbI2.56Br0.44/PMMA/P3HT:CuPc (or Spiro-OMeTAD)/MoOx (~10 nm)/IZO (~40 nm)/gold.

The histogram administration amount (inset, Fig. 4A) presents the reproducibility of the large-area perovskite beef (details of the J-V ambit are provided in table S1). The ~30-mV abatement in Voc back we acclimated the breach to admeasurement the corpuscle compared with the J-V achievement abstinent afterwards an breach (fig. S22) was ascribed to carrier recombination aural the cell’s aphotic arena black by the affectation (44). Taking this arrears into account, we achieve that there was negligible accident in Voc or FF amid beef of breadth 0.165 and 1 cm2 admitting a >6× access in photocurrent.

To assay the ablaze and thermal adherence of the cells, we conducted two continued abasement tests: a steady-state ability achievement (SPO) altitude [unencapsulated beef captivated at best ability point voltage (Vmpp) beneath connected beam in a N2 atmosphere] and a clammy calefaction assay (encapsulated beef apparent to 85°C and 85% about clamminess in the dark). For the SPO test, Fig. 4C shows that the corpuscle with the P3HT:CuPC HTL retained ~95.3% of its antecedent ability (PCEinitial ~ 21.45%) afterwards 260 hours, admitting the ascendancy corpuscle with a Spiro-OMeTAD HTL alone to ~76.1% of its antecedent ability (PCEinitial ~ 19.50%) afterwards 250 hours. In the clammy calefaction assay after-effects (Fig. 4D), the P3HT:CuPc–based corpuscle retained ~91.7% of its antecedent ability afterwards 1009 hours of clammy calefaction exposure, admitting the corpuscle with the Spiro-OMeTAD HTL apparent abundant abasement afterwards alone 240 hours, which we attributed to the astringent abasement at the interface amid perovskite and Spiro-OMeTAD acquired by lithium ion circulation (6, 32, 33). The beef acclimated for the clammy calefaction tests included an added barrier bandage consisting of MoOx (~10 nm) and IZO (~40 nm) placed amid the HTL and the gold electrode to anticipate gold circulation into the corpuscle at animated temperatures (45).

Although we alone present actuality adherence abstracts for one ascendancy and one nanopatterned cell, the aforementioned tests were again on assorted corpuscle types accumulation the P3HT:CuPC HTL, all of which apparent a agnate advance in adherence about to Spiro-OMeTAD–based cells. The berserk and thermally abiding attributes of the ionic dopant–free P3HT:CuPc HTLs could access the adherence of perovskite beef compared with ionic-doped amoebic HTL abstracts afterwards any amends in performance. Time-dependent ability achievement and J-V curves bold the corpuscle achievement change during the two abasement tests are provided in figs. S23 to S26.

Although the nanopatterned ETL appear actuality was bogus with EBL, the anatomy is accordant with bartering calibration artifact application nanoimprint techniques (46). Some anatomy of self-assembled ETL nanostructure ability additionally accommodate a abundantly aberrant apparent to anatomy bounded contacts through a passivation layer. Added generally, our assignment demonstrates the important alternation amid ETL morphology, interface passivation, and allegation carriage at the ETL-perovskite interface.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: Funding: This assignment was accurate by the Australian Government through the Australian Renewable Activity Agency (ARENA) and the Australian Research Council. Responsibility for the views, information, or admonition bidding herein is not accustomed by the Australian Government. J.P. acknowledges the banking abutment of a postdoctoral acquaintance from the Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP). T.P.W. is the almsman of an Australian Research Council Future Acquaintance (project no. FT180100302) adjourned by the Australian Government. T.P.W. additionally acknowledges the abutment of the Open Fund of the State Key Class of Optoelectronic Abstracts and Technologies (Sun Yat-sen University). Y.R., Q.L., and J.L. accede allotment from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 11974436 and 11674402) and the Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (grant no. 2020B1515020019). Author contributions: J.P. conceived the idea, advised the all-embracing experiments, and led the project. J.P., Y.W., T.D., M.A.M., and H.S. able and characterized the perovskite corpuscle devices. D.W., T.P.W., and K.J.W. conducted the 3D afterwards simulation. Y.R. and Q.L. performed the PMMA breach arrangement fabrication. J.L. supervised the PMMA breach arrangement artifact and optimization. J.P. and D.-Y.C. performed ALD TiO2 abasement and ICP-RIE etching. Y.W. and M.A.M. performed the GIXRD and XRD abstracts and analysis. M.T. and H.T.N. performed the PL and TRPL abstracts and analysis. T.D., O.L.C.L., and S.Z. conducted the SEM abstracts and analysis. T.L. and Y.L. performed the AFM abstracts and analysis. W.L. performed the EQE measurements. L.L. and F.K. performed the FIB-SEM abstracts and analysis. J.P., D.W., and T.P.W. wrote and revised the manuscript. T.P.W. and K.R.C. supervised the project. All authors contributed to the altercation of the after-effects and afterlight of the manuscript. Aggressive interests: The authors acknowledge no aggressive interests. Abstracts and abstracts availability: All abstracts bald to appraise the abstracts in the cardboard are accessible in the capital argument or the added materials.

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